SC-HSM SmartCards

Submitted by admin on So, 11.12.2016 - 11:26

Von CardContact gibt es eine Smartcard mit dem Namen Smardcard-HSM, die einige bemerkenswerte Eigenschaften hat. Da wären:

  • Middleware ist OpenSource
  • OpenSC Unterstützung
  • Kontaktlos (RFID) und Kontakt Interface

Bei den ersten Tests hat sich gezeigt, dass die Karte, wenn man sie erst einmal zum Laufen bekommen hat, sehr zuverlässig funktioniert. Ein Zertifikat bekommt man nur mit der Middleware von CardContact auf die Karte, was aber nicht wirklich ein Problem darstellt, da Open-Source. Die Performance der Karte ist als gut zu bezeichnen, Wartezeiten bei Zugriffen, wie man sie von älteren Smartcards kennt, gibt es nicht.

Weniger schön sind jedoch die Anforderungen an den Kartenleser, was jedoch eher den Leser Herstellern zuzurechnen ist. Die Karte verlangt vom Leser, dass dieser extended APDUs unterstützt. So ganz neu ist das Feature nicht, es wird aber von den Herstellern offenbar ebenso ignoriert wie IPv6 von den Internet Providern. Der einzige Kartenleser, der mit der Smardcard-HSM zuverlässig funktioniert, sind die Klasse 3 Leser von Reiner-SCT, wobei bei dem Modell RFID Comfort das Pinpad im kontaktlosen Mode nicht funktioniert.

Verbesserungsfähig ist die Dokumentation, offenbar unterstützt diese Karte auch CVC, leider sind dazu kaum Informationen zu finden.

Init

Zunächst muss die Karte initialisiert werden.

sc-hsm-tool --initialize

Keypair erzeugen

Die Smartcard HSM ist eines der wenigen Produkte, die Schlüssel auf der Basis elliptischer Kurven unterstützt, also gleich einmal testen:

# Die folgenden Key Types werden von SmartCard HSM unterstützt:
KEY_TYPE="secp256k1"
#KEY_TYPE="prime256v1"
pkcs11-tool --module /usr/lib64/pkcs11/opensc-pkcs11.so --keypairgen --key-type EC:${KEY_TYPE} --login --label "hsm-0001" --id 10

OpenSSL

Am Anfang steht eine angepasste openssl.cnf. Wichtig ist hier insbesondere der Abschnitt pkcs11_section der hier für Fedora 23 angepasst ist und auch mit CentOS funktioniert.

RedHat/CentOS/Fedora: Bei diesen Distributionen wird eine kaputte OpenSSL Version mitgeliefert, bei denen libgost.so fehlt, so dass die PKCS#11 Engine nicht funktioniert. Abhilfe: OpenSSL selbst compilieren, dann klappt es. Die folgenden Beispiele sind mit einem selbst compilierten OpenSSL 1.0.2h erstellt worden.

#
# OpenSSL example configuration file.
# This is mostly being used for generation of certificate requests.
#

openssl_conf = openssl_def

# This definition stops the following lines choking if HOME isn't
# defined.
HOME			= .
RANDFILE		= $ENV::HOME/.rnd

# Extra OBJECT IDENTIFIER info:
#oid_file		= $ENV::HOME/.oid
oid_section		= new_oids

# To use this configuration file with the "-extfile" option of the
# "openssl x509" utility, name here the section containing the
# X.509v3 extensions to use:
# extensions		= 
# (Alternatively, use a configuration file that has only
# X.509v3 extensions in its main [= default] section.)

[openssl_def]

engines = engine_section

[engine_section]

pkcs11 = pkcs11_section

[ pkcs11_section ]
engine_id = pkcs11
dynamic_path = /usr/lib64/openssl/engines/libpkcs11.so
MODULE_PATH = /usr/lib64/opensc-pkcs11.so
init = 0

[ new_oids ]

# We can add new OIDs in here for use by 'ca', 'req' and 'ts'.
# Add a simple OID like this:
# testoid1=1.2.3.4
# Or use config file substitution like this:
# testoid2=${testoid1}.5.6

# Policies used by the TSA examples.
tsa_policy1 = 1.2.3.4.1
tsa_policy2 = 1.2.3.4.5.6
tsa_policy3 = 1.2.3.4.5.7

####################################################################
[ ca ]
default_ca	= CA_default		# The default ca section

####################################################################
[ CA_default ]

dir		= ./demoCA		# Where everything is kept
certs		= $dir/certs		# Where the issued certs are kept
crl_dir		= $dir/crl		# Where the issued crl are kept
database	= $dir/index.txt	# database index file.
#unique_subject	= no			# Set to 'no' to allow creation of
					# several ctificates with same subject.
new_certs_dir	= $dir/newcerts		# default place for new certs.

certificate	= $dir/cacert.pem 	# The CA certificate
serial		= $dir/serial 		# The current serial number
crlnumber	= $dir/crlnumber	# the current crl number
					# must be commented out to leave a V1 CRL
crl		= $dir/crl.pem 		# The current CRL
private_key	= $dir/private/cakey.pem# The private key
RANDFILE	= $dir/private/.rand	# private random number file

x509_extensions	= usr_cert		# The extentions to add to the cert

# Comment out the following two lines for the "traditional"
# (and highly broken) format.
name_opt 	= ca_default		# Subject Name options
cert_opt 	= ca_default		# Certificate field options

# Extension copying option: use with caution.
# copy_extensions = copy

# Extensions to add to a CRL. Note: Netscape communicator chokes on V2 CRLs
# so this is commented out by default to leave a V1 CRL.
# crlnumber must also be commented out to leave a V1 CRL.
# crl_extensions	= crl_ext

default_days	= 365			# how long to certify for
default_crl_days= 30			# how long before next CRL
default_md	= default		# use public key default MD
preserve	= no			# keep passed DN ordering

# A few difference way of specifying how similar the request should look
# For type CA, the listed attributes must be the same, and the optional
# and supplied fields are just that :-)
policy		= policy_anything

# For the CA policy
[ policy_match ]
countryName		= match
stateOrProvinceName	= match
organizationName	= match
organizationalUnitName	= optional
commonName		= supplied
emailAddress		= optional

# For the 'anything' policy
# At this point in time, you must list all acceptable 'object'
# types.
[ policy_anything ]
countryName		= optional
stateOrProvinceName	= optional
localityName		= optional
organizationName	= optional
organizationalUnitName	= optional
commonName		= supplied
emailAddress		= optional

####################################################################
[ req ]
default_bits		= 2048
default_keyfile 	= privkey.pem
distinguished_name	= req_distinguished_name
attributes		= req_attributes
x509_extensions	= v3_ca	# The extentions to add to the self signed cert

# Passwords for private keys if not present they will be prompted for
# input_password = secret
# output_password = secret

# This sets a mask for permitted string types. There are several options. 
# default: PrintableString, T61String, BMPString.
# pkix	 : PrintableString, BMPString (PKIX recommendation before 2004)
# utf8only: only UTF8Strings (PKIX recommendation after 2004).
# nombstr : PrintableString, T61String (no BMPStrings or UTF8Strings).
# MASK:XXXX a literal mask value.
# WARNING: ancient versions of Netscape crash on BMPStrings or UTF8Strings.
string_mask = utf8only

# req_extensions = v3_req # The extensions to add to a certificate request

[ req_distinguished_name ]
#countryName			= Country Name (2 letter code)
#countryName_default		= DE
#countryName_min			= 2
#countryName_max			= 2

#stateOrProvinceName		= State or Province Name (full name)
#stateOrProvinceName_default	= Some-State

#localityName			= Locality Name (eg, city)

#0.organizationName		= Organization Name (eg, company)
#0.organizationName_default	= example.com

# we can do this but it is not needed normally :-)
#1.organizationName		= Second Organization Name (eg, company)
#1.organizationName_default	= World Wide Web Pty Ltd

#organizationalUnitName		= Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
#organizationalUnitName_default	= Root CA

commonName			= Common Name (eg, YOUR name)
commonName_max			= 64

#emailAddress			= Email Address
#emailAddress_max		= 64

# SET-ex3			= SET extension number 3

[ req_attributes ]
challengePassword		= A challenge password
challengePassword_min		= 4
challengePassword_max		= 20

unstructuredName		= An optional company name

[ usr_cert ]

# These extensions are added when 'ca' signs a request.

# This goes against PKIX guidelines but some CAs do it and some software
# requires this to avoid interpreting an end user certificate as a CA.

basicConstraints=CA:FALSE

# Here are some examples of the usage of nsCertType. If it is omitted
# the certificate can be used for anything *except* object signing.

# This is OK for an SSL server.
# nsCertType			= server

# For an object signing certificate this would be used.
# nsCertType = objsign

# For normal client use this is typical
# nsCertType = client, email

# and for everything including object signing:
# nsCertType = client, email, objsign

# This is typical in keyUsage for a client certificate.
# keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment

# This will be displayed in Netscape's comment listbox.
nsComment			= "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"

# PKIX recommendations harmless if included in all certificates.
subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer

# This stuff is for subjectAltName and issuerAltname.
# Import the email address.
# subjectAltName=email:copy
# An alternative to produce certificates that aren't
# deprecated according to PKIX.
# subjectAltName=email:move

# Copy subject details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy

# This is required for TSA certificates.
# extendedKeyUsage = critical,timeStamping

[ v3_req ]

# Extensions to add to a certificate request

basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment

[ v3_ca ]


# Extensions for a typical CA


# PKIX recommendation.

subjectKeyIdentifier=hash

authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always,issuer

# This is what PKIX recommends but some broken software chokes on critical
# extensions.
#basicConstraints = critical,CA:true
# So we do this instead.
basicConstraints = CA:true

# Key usage: this is typical for a CA certificate. However since it will
# prevent it being used as an test self-signed certificate it is best
# left out by default.
# keyUsage = cRLSign, keyCertSign

# Some might want this also
# nsCertType = sslCA, emailCA

# Include email address in subject alt name: another PKIX recommendation
# subjectAltName=email:copy
# Copy issuer details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy

# DER hex encoding of an extension: beware experts only!
# obj=DER:02:03
# Where 'obj' is a standard or added object
# You can even override a supported extension:
# basicConstraints= critical, DER:30:03:01:01:FF

[ crl_ext ]

# CRL extensions.
# Only issuerAltName and authorityKeyIdentifier make any sense in a CRL.

# issuerAltName=issuer:copy
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always

[ proxy_cert_ext ]
# These extensions should be added when creating a proxy certificate

# This goes against PKIX guidelines but some CAs do it and some software
# requires this to avoid interpreting an end user certificate as a CA.

basicConstraints=CA:FALSE

# Here are some examples of the usage of nsCertType. If it is omitted
# the certificate can be used for anything *except* object signing.

# This is OK for an SSL server.
# nsCertType			= server

# For an object signing certificate this would be used.
# nsCertType = objsign

# For normal client use this is typical
# nsCertType = client, email

# and for everything including object signing:
# nsCertType = client, email, objsign

# This is typical in keyUsage for a client certificate.
# keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment

# This will be displayed in Netscape's comment listbox.
nsComment			= "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"

# PKIX recommendations harmless if included in all certificates.
subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer

# This stuff is for subjectAltName and issuerAltname.
# Import the email address.
# subjectAltName=email:copy
# An alternative to produce certificates that aren't
# deprecated according to PKIX.
# subjectAltName=email:move

# Copy subject details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy


# This really needs to be in place for it to be a proxy certificate.
proxyCertInfo=critical,language:id-ppl-anyLanguage,pathlen:3,policy:foo

####################################################################
[ tsa ]

default_tsa = tsa_config1	# the default TSA section

[ tsa_config1 ]

# These are used by the TSA reply generation only.
dir		= ./demoCA		# TSA root directory
serial		= $dir/tsaserial	# The current serial number (mandatory)
crypto_device	= builtin		# OpenSSL engine to use for signing
signer_cert	= $dir/tsacert.pem 	# The TSA signing certificate
					# (optional)
certs		= $dir/cacert.pem	# Certificate chain to include in reply
					# (optional)
signer_key	= $dir/private/tsakey.pem # The TSA private key (optional)

default_policy	= tsa_policy1		# Policy if request did not specify it
					# (optional)
other_policies	= tsa_policy2, tsa_policy3	# acceptable policies (optional)
digests		= md5, sha1		# Acceptable message digests (mandatory)
accuracy	= secs:1, millisecs:500, microsecs:100	# (optional)
clock_precision_digits  = 0	# number of digits after dot. (optional)
ordering		= yes	# Is ordering defined for timestamps?
				# (optional, default: no)
tsa_name		= yes	# Must the TSA name be included in the reply?
				# (optional, default: no)
ess_cert_id_chain	= no	# Must the ESS cert id chain be included?
				# (optional, default: no)

Keypair ist schön und gut, aber wir brauchen auch noch ein Zertifikat, was ein CSR File erfordert:

/usr/local/ssl/bin/openssl req -engine pkcs11 -keyform engine -key 10 -new -text -out hsm-0001.csr -config openssl.cnf -subj "/O=example.com/CN=hsm-0001"

oder man erstellt ein selbstsigniertes Zertifikat:

/usr/local/ssl/bin/openssl req -x509 -engine pkcs11 -keyform engine -key 10 -new -text -out hsm-0001.crt -config openssl.cnf -subj "/O=example.com/CN=hsm-0001"
openssl x509 -in hsm-0001.crt -out hsm-0001.crt.der -outform der
pkcs11-tool --module /usr/lib64/pkcs11/opensc-pkcs11.so --login  --write-object hsm-0001.crt.der --type cert --id 10

Elliptische Kurven

Bei der SmartCard HSM wird bei RSA > 1024Bit ein Smartcardreader mit extended APDU Unterstützung benötigt. Da elliptische Kurven mit vergleichsweise kleineren Schlüssellängen auskommen, sind diese offenbar eine gute Wahl für diese Smartcards.

Links

X.509 mit Smartcards enthält weitere Skripte und Hinweise zu Anwendungen.